DNA HAPLOGROUP TREES FOR BEN R. LONDEREE

 

BACKGROUND

 

The goal in this paper is to construct my ancient ancestry from the beginnings of human kind to around 300 years before present (1950) (YBP).   In the process, I hope to learn more about factors that influenced this ancestry.

In contrast to typical genealogy, there are no name, birth, baptism, marriage, death, and burial paper records available when researching ancient history.  Fortunately, there are records within the cells of my body in the form of DNA that can provide a reasonably clear picture of my evolution.  A map of generalized human DNA (the human genome) was developed and refined 2001-2004 and included about three billion base pairs of molecules. [14]

DNA is found in every cell of the body.  Two copies of the entire DNA molecule are found in each cell nucleus, more specifically the nucleolus, and called nuclear DNA.  This DNA contains 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.  A child’s autosomal chromosomes are a 50/50 random mixture of the autosomal DNA received from each parent.  However, each child receives a completely intact sex chromosome from each parent, an X chromosome from the mother and either an X (female, xDNA) of Y (male, yDNA) chromosome from the father. [21][26]   The chromosomes are made up of genes (coding region) and noncoding regions between the genes.  The latter includes activator/deactivator sites that turn genes on and off and many other areas of largely unknown use. [14][23]   All of the genes within the chromosomes control the genetic characteristics that will be manifested by that person. 

Another form of DNA is found in mitochondria and is called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).  The mtDNA contains only that small part of the DNA that controls oxidative metabolism in the cell.  There are many copies/strands of mtDNA in each cell related to the oxidative capacity of the cell.[23] [29]   Endurance training will increase that oxidative capacity in the active cells and thus the amount of mitochondrial material and mtDNA in the respective cells. [37]   The mtDNA comes only from the mother. [26]

The earliest humans had DNA profiles that they received from their ancestors.  Generally the sex related DNA is resistant to change and is passed on to children pretty much intact.  However, with such complex molecules that are split and recombined during conception, there are bound to be some mistakes which are called mutations.  Scientists have adopted the term Short Tandem Repeat Polymorphism (STR) for some mutations.  The measurement is the number of times a segment (allele) is repeated in a row.  As part of the new DNA, the STRs are passed on to children.  Some STRs die off but robust ones may become a family characteristic.  The process continues with subsequent conceptions so that a particular group of STRs become a characteristic of a clan and eventually a geographic population – perhaps 1,000 years after its origin.  When the characteristic has become so ubiquitous, modern day genetic genealogists reclassify it as a haplogroup.

More recently a haplogroup has been identified by mutation at a specific location on the DNA molecule and is called a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP– pronounced snip).  Each SNP is assigned a combination of letters and numbers for identification purposes. Different labs may identify a SNP using a different combination of letters and numbers.  Over time these differences usually get worked out, but the old names tend to stick around.  It gets confusing.  There is good but not perfect agreement between haplogroups determined with SNPs versus predicted using STRs.  Therefore there appears to be some kind of linkage between SNPs and STRs.  SNPs have become the standard for identifying a haplogroup.  SNPs happen much less often than STRs so they are a coarser measure of when and geographically where they occurred.

In the meantime other STRs and SNPs develop and remain within the DNA of descendants.  With increasing population size, there will be migration and new STRs and SNPs will define new geographic sets of characteristics.  Over tens of thousands of years, marked divergences have developed in the human genome. [9]

The father to son passage of the mainly intact yDNA serves as a paternal identifier for males.  There likely will be zero or only minor changes in key STR profiles for 10-20 generations.  The key STRs are called markers and were selected because they have sequences that are relatively easy to find; they have high variability in the number of repeats; and they mutate more often than other segments.  Similarly, mother to daughter passage of mainly intact mtDNA serves as an identifier of mother to daughter relationships.  However, the fact that females typically adopt their husband’s surname makes it much more difficult to follow female lineages without complete records of marriages and other name changes. [9]

So if two males have the same exact yDNA profile, they must have a recent common ancestor.  With increasing differences in the yDNA profile, the common ancestor must be increasingly more remote.  If two or more people have the same yDNA profile and all but one knows his family tree, the remaining person who doesn’t know all of his ancestors hopefully can identify a common ancestor and learn more about his lineage. [9]   In this manner, using a 37 STR marker yDNA test, I was able to deduce that my earliest known male ancestor was Rene le jeune Landry.  From other sources I learned that Rene was born about 1634 some place in France, probably southwest of Paris.  This 10 generation process worked very well and probably will be useful out to about 20 generations.  For deeper probes SNPs are the way to go.

  First let’s set the background for the use of SNP testing.  Mutations are sequential in nature.  In other words, one mutation (A) will occur and it will be followed by an additional mutation (B) after many generations.  If B is found with testing, A will be there as well because it was a predecessor.  If another mutation occurs (C) after many more generations and it is found in a test, both A and B will be found as well because both were predecessors.  In this example, A, B, and C are SNPs.  Extrapolating this process back in time eventually leads to one man and one woman whose conception initiated the process.  Each living person’s DNA contains his history of mutations in the form of SNPs and STRs.

Much recent research has attempted to identify and order the SNP sequences into a branching tree format.  As of 2009, about 18,000,000 SNPs had been identified and 7,000,000 validated in the yDNA in the human male population. [55]   The SNPs identified probably include duplicates.  The NCBI-NIH maintains the genetic sequence database. [20]   The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) has assumed the role of ordering the SNPs into a Paternal Phylogenic Tree from yDNA samples [31] based on reports from labs all over the world.  The oldest SNPs form the trunk of the tree and newer SNPs form smaller and smaller branches.  A search of the 2018 ISOGG Index listed more than 73,000 validated Y-SNPs that have been placed in the Paternal Phylogenic Tree. [55]   Therefore much progress has been made but there is a long way to go.  Similarly, there is a Maternal Phylogenic Tree that is maintained and updated periodically by Mannis van Oven.  As of 18 February 2016 the Maternal Tree had 5,400 haplogroups. [75]   As of 7 November 2016, there had been 154,206,854 SNP submissions and 100,877,027 validated for Homo sapiens (male and female) according to the NCBI-NIH genetic sequence database. [20]

Using SNP information, the DNA analysis process can be extended back thousands of years although precision diminishes considerably.  Recall that SNPs are a coarser measure than STRs.  SNPs are identified and instead of specific dates, years, or decades; were talking about thousands or tens of thousands years.  Instead of specific people were talking about sub-populations.  An initial decision will depend on whether to search for the paternal line (use yDNA from the nucleus) or maternal line (use mtDNA.)  A typical SNP data file for an individual will contain many thousands of SNPs (theoretically all of the mutations in your ancestry) and computer programs are necessary to sort out the most recent SNP.  Unless you have ordered a deep clade test, e. g. Big Y, full mtDNA, next generation sequencing, or equivalent subclade tests, the result probably will not be your most recent SNP.   If you know your most recent SNP and you can locate it on the appropriate Phylogenic Tree, you can trace it back through the branches to the trunk of the tree.  Your most recent SNP places you in a haplogroup that serves as an approximate geographic locator with an approximate date of origin.  Older SNPs act as earlier approximate geographic locators and dates.  When your SNPs are identified and put in the proper order, you have your personal haplogroup tree.  Since the geographic location and time when a defining SNP first appeared are known approximately, you can develop a rough migration map showing when and where your ancestors have lived.

METHODOLOGY

Samples were submitted for DNA ancestry determination on more than one occasion including Ancestry.com, 23andMe, and FamilyTreedna.com  (FTDNA.com.)

  My Autosomal DNA data file at Ancestry.com was downloaded and transferred to FTDNA.com, GEDmatch.com, and MyHeritage.com.  At  FTDNA I ordered the 37 Marker yDNA Test, activated my transferred Ancestry.com data file (equivalent to FTDNA Family Finder Test), The R1b – 343&M269v2 Backbone SNP Pack Test, mtFull Sequence Test, and Big Y-500.  The results of the last two are pending.  At 23andMe I ordered the Ancestry Personal Genetic Service for Genealogy.  Among other things, paternal and/or maternal haplogroup designations were reported by 23andMe and FTDNA. 

My paternal haplogroup tree was determined by attempting to locate my Y-haplogroup on the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) Phylogenetic Tree [51] and tracing my paternal haplogroup ancestry on the ISOGG Tree back to its beginning.  The first two steps were not on the ISOGG Tree, so I used other sources [19][77] for this part.  A similar process was used for determining my maternal haplogroup tree using the Phylogenetic Tree maintained by Mannis van Oven. [74][75]

Y-haplogroup ages and times to the most recent ancestor were determined on the YFull website [78] for all but two cases which were found in other sources. [68][78]   The maternal haplogroup ages were determined by blending information from various sources. [15][56][59][74]   Geographic locations for the haplogroup origins were estimated from various sources. [15][16][13][39][49][56][59]

RESULTS

FTDNA reported that my Y-haplogroup determined from the R1b – 343&M269v2 Backbone SNP Pack Test was R-ZZ19_1.  I hope that my Big Y-500 test will extend my known paternal haplogroup even further.  My constructed paternal haplogroup tree appears in Table 1.  Figure 1 is a hypothesized approximation of my paternal migration path.  My maternal haplogroup of H6a1a was reported by 23andMe.  I hope that my mtFull Sequence Test will extend my maternal haplogroup even further.  My maternal haplogroup tree is shown in Table 2.  A hypothesized approximation of my maternal migration path is shown in Figure 2.

                                                        TABLE 1: PATERNAL HAPLOGROUP TREE FOR BEN R. LONDEREEa 

 

 

 

        Origin

     Origin

    TMRCA

              Clade

Branchb

Defining SNPc

     Locationd

       YBPe

       YBPf

Root Y

Adam”g

 

Africa

1,800,000[13]

 

Archaic Humansh

 

 

Africa

 

 

.A00

H. sapieni

AF6/L1284

Africa

  235,900

  161,300

..A0-T

 

L1085

Africa

 

 

…A1

 

P305

Africa

  161,300

  133,400

….A1b

 

P108

Africa

  133,400

  130,700

.....BTj

 

M91

Africa

  130,700

    88,000

......CT

 

M168/PF1416

Africa

    88,000

    68,500

……..CF

 

P143

Africa

    68,500

    65,900

………F

 

M89/PF2746

Central Asia

    65,900

    48,800

……….GHIJK

 

F1329/M3658/PF2622+

Central Asia

    48,800

    48,500

………..HIJK

 

F929/M578/PF3494+

Central Asia

    48,500

    48,500

…………IJK

 

L15/M523/PF3492+

Central Asia

    48,500

    47,200

………….K

K

M9

Central Asia

    47,200

    45,400

…………..K2

 

M526/PF5979

Central Asia

    45,400

    45,400

……………K2b

 

M1221/P331+

Central Asia

    45,400

    45,400

…………….K2b2

P

P295/PF5866/S8+

Central Asia

    45,400

    31,900

……………..K2b2a

P1

M45/PF5962

Central Asia

   

 

………………K2b2a2

R

M207+

West Asia

    31,900

    28,200

……………….R1

R-M173m

M173/P241

West Asia

    28,200

    22,800

………………..R1b

R-M343l

M343/PF6242

West Asiak

    22,800

    20,400

…………………R1b1

 

L278

West Asiak

    20,400

    18,900

………………….R1b1a

 

L754/PF6269+

West Asiak

    18,900

    17,100

…………………..R1b1a1

 

L388/L389/PF6468+

West Asiak

    17,100

    15,600

……………………R1b1a1a

 

P297/PF6398

West Asiak

    15,600

    13,300

…………………….R1b1a1a2

R-M269l

M269/PF6517

West Asiak

    13,300

      6,400

……………………..R1b1a1a2a

 

L23/PF6534/S141

West Asiak

     6,400

      6,100

………………………R1b1a1a2a1

 

L51/M412/PF6536+

 

     6,100

      5,700

……………………….R1b1a1a2a1a

 

L151/L11/P311

S.E. Europe

     5,700

      4,800

………………………..R1b1a1a2a1a2

R-P312

P312

Central Europe

     4,800

      4,500

…………………………

 

Z40481

 

     4,500

 

………………………….

 

ZZ11

 

 

 

…………………………..R1b1a1a2a1a2a

R-DF27

DF27

NE Spain/SW France [68]

     4,190[68]

      4,190[68]

 

 

ZZ12_1

 

 

 

 

 

ZZ19_1

 

 

 

a This table is based on the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (2017). Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2018, Version: 13.58, Date: 6 March 2018, http://www.isogg.org/tree/ 8 March 2018. [51]; a Wikipedia series [16];  a Eupedia series [49]; The Big Tree [77]; and my FTDNA Haplogroup Report.

b Major branches

c These are some of the defining SNPs.  Multiple listings are some of the alternative names from different labs for a particular SNP.  A plus (+) means there are others.

d Place where the SNPs were thought to have first appeared.  Central Asia assumes a northern exit from Africa. [39]

e Years before present (1950).  From YFull [78] except as noted.  https://www.yfull.com/search-snp-in-tree/

f Years before present (1950) to the most recent common ancestor. [78]  https://www.yfull.com/search-snp-in-tree/ except as noted.

g “Adam” was the first male in the genus Homo.  There probably were many contemporary males but their lines became extinct.  “Adam’s” lineage is the only one that led to modern humans.  Some sources placed “Adam” as a Homo sapien.

h The lineage between “Adam” and Homo sapiens is open to debate.  “Adam” probably was a member of H. erectus.  In the ISOGG Y-DNA haplogroup Tree there were about 200 defining SNPs that occurred during about 1,565,000 years between “Adam” and Homo sapiens.

i Homo sapien was the first anatomically modern man.  There were many mutations between “Adam” and Homo sapiens.  All living “Out of Africa” humans descended from this line of males.  Some descendants of other archaic species still exist in Africa.

j Haplogroup BT is ancestral to all non-African haplogroups.

k Probably Anatolia, Caucasus, or the Pontic Steppe (south of, between, or north of the Black and Caspian Seas; respectively.)

l These haplogroups account for a large percentage of males in Western Europe as R-M269 and its subclades.

m Haplogroup R1 and its clades and subclades were white or light in skin tone.  Higher order haplogroups and sister Haplogroup R2 were black/brown in skin tone. 

 

                                                        TABLE 2: MATERNAL HAPLOGROUP TREE FOR BEN R. LONDEREEn 

 

 

 

        Origin

    Origin

              Clade

     Branchb

           Defining SNPc

      Locationo

     YBPp

L

Eve”q

 

Africa [74]

177,000

.L1-6

 

C146T

Africa [74]

153,000

..L3

L3

769/1018/16311

E. Africa [74]

  71,000 [39]

…N

N

8701/9540/10398/10873+

Cen. Asia [39]

  60,000 [39]

….R

R

12,705/16223

Uzbekistan [56]

  54,500 [39]

…..RO

 

73/22,719

N. Caucasus [56]

  40,000 [56]

……HV

 

T14766C

W. Asiar

  22,000

…….H

H

G2706A/T7028C

W. Asiar

  13,000

……..H6

 

T239C/T16362C/A16482G

W. Asiar

  11,000

………H6a

 

G3915A/G9380A

W. Asiar

    9,500

………H6a1

 

A4727G

W. Asiar

    8,700

………H6a1a

H6a1a

T11253C

W. Asiar

    7,100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Footnotes a-m are located at the bottom of the previous table.

n The information in this table came from a series of Wikipedia articles; [15] van Oven, Mannis, a series of articles on specific haplogroups; [74]   van Oven, M. and M. Kayser, [75] and Behar, et al. [30]

o Source as noted.

p Source was van Oven [74] except as noted.

q The first female in this line is unknown but has been nicknamed “Eve”.  There probably were many earlier and contemporary females but their lines became extinct.  All living, “Out of Africa” humans descended from this female.  Her spouse was a descendant of “Adam.”

r Probably Anatolia, Caucasus, or the Pontic Steppe (south of, between, or north of the Black and Caspian Seas; respectively.)  Typically the location was not specified in the literature.

DISCUSSION

The construction of my paternal and maternal haplogroup trees was straight forward.  It only required tracking the proper haplogroup pedigree order when using the Paternal and Maternal Phylogenetic Trees, i. e. current haplogroup, second or parental haplogroup, third or grandparent haplogroup, etc.  ISOGG, and van Oven have and continue sorting through and ordering the haplogroups into Phylogenetic Trees.  The difficult part was determining the time of origin and the geographic origin of each haplogroup because there was so much variability in the literature.  Some of the following discussion will address these topics.  But first we’ll address diversity.

The term diversity or genetic diversity has or will appear several times in this paper.  Broadly speaking, genetic diversity refers to having a variety of DNA sequences in the population of interest.  In a large population the diversity would refer to the number of different haplogroups, clades, subclades, and STRs.  Within a haplogroup diversity would refer to the number of clades, subclades, and STRs.  Over a period of time, DNA diversity increases because of mutations.  The rates of various types of mutations have been estimated via research, but the numbers vary considerably.  Recall that mutations are random events so these calculations are subject to error, especially when derived in small samples.  Also recall that generally, measurements are made on current groups and extrapolated back thousands of years, which assumes that the current and ancient groups have the same composition.  There are only a small number of analyses that have been done on ancient skeletons.  Small errors multiplied by thousands of years can be huge.  If a segment of the population migrates to another location, the migrating group probably will be less diverse than the original population.  This phenomenon is called the founder effect [8].  If there is a major die-off from a disease, war, or catastrophe, the total population and diversity will decline.  Knowing these relationships and limitations, you can make predictions or calculate expected values.  If you know the DNA composition before and after an event, you can calculate time.  If you know time and pre- and post- DNA values, you can determine if the known and expected post values agree.  If the actual is less than expected, then you have a founder effect, a major die-off, or the assumptions behind your calculations were not valid.  Conceptually this process is rather straight forward but in actual practice it is quite complicated.  You need DNA sequencing data; justification/validation of your methods and assumptions; and special computer programs.  Another use of these procedures is to determine diversity within haplogroups in multiple locations.  The place with the highest diversity probably was the origin of the haplogroup because the other less diverse locations suffer from the founder effect(s). 

Geographic origin of SNPs is a hot area of research.  One approach has been to determine SNPs in fossils found in ancient burial sites and to date them using various methods, e. g. carbon 14.  A problem is that the pool of discovered buried individuals is very small and may not be representative.   Other problems have been sample deterioration and contamination.  Another method involves determining the diversity of SNPs in current residents as discussed above.  The latter approach assumes that the SNP diversity in the place of origin would be the highest and diversity would decline with distance from that point due to repeated founder effects.  Sometimes a natural event might alter their location, e. g. flooding, drought, glacier, etc.  Researchers use creative research designs to get around the problems innate with these methods.  For example, glacier data or layers of soil might be useful for dating events or artifacts and determining environmental conditions.  One study reviewed the ancient DNA data as well as current DNA data and concluded that there had been nearly complete replacement of the ancient residents by “new” residents in Europe. [47]   To make a long story short, identification of geographic locations for SNP origins is improving but there is a need for improvement.  Not all researchers will agree with the geographical locations that I selected in the above tables.  An extension of this topic is about migration routes out of Africa to be discussed below.

Determining when a SNP originated (coalescence age) has been a complex issue.  Recall that scientists don’t classify a mutation as a SNP until it has become a population characteristic and may take 1,000 years (30-40 generations) after the mutation first occurred in a single person.  In simplistic terms, many living people are tested for DNA profiles to determine diversity of a haplogroup in the population.  Diversity is a function of the number of mutations that have occurred over time.  If you know the rate of mutations in the population and the number of mutations that have occurred in the population, you can calculate how long it must have taken to get to the current status.  Since mutations are random events, the rate is applicable only in large samples.  Even then rates vary for different mutations.  A small difference in the rate used in the calculations in various studies will result in large differences in the coalescence age. Consequently, most reported coalescence ages have very large standard errors, e. g. 1,000s-10,000s of years.  Similarly, the origin time in various studies often differed considerably.  Generally the raw data are placed in a depository, e. g. NIH, so that others may combine it with new data to increase their sample size.  With time, more and more studies have been conducted with larger, merged samples with the result being that the assumed values used become more precise and representative.  With development of the generalized Phylogenetic Trees, we have haplogroup ages expressed in an ordinal format, i. e. we know that A came before B, and B became before C, etc.  Never-the-less, the time of origin numbers in the above tables should be viewed with caution.

An extension of the origin dating is Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA).  An illustration will be used to define the concept.  We present two hypothetical lineages: (A>B>C>D>E) and (A>B>C>D>F ).  A, B, C, and D are common ancestors of E and F, but D is the Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA.)  TMRCA will never exceed time of the origin but the former most likely will be less because the MRCA will be a descendant of the person in which the mutation originally occurred.  Recall that a SNP classification likely might be about 1,000 years after the mutation first occurred.

It appears that my ancestors spent tens of thousands of years in Africa.  At some point in time (probably 70,000 YBP - 60,000 YBP) my paternal ancestors migrated out of Africa via the Sinai Peninsula. (More about this later)  My paternal ancestors roamed the central part of Asia for thousands of years as hunters and gatherers with Stone Age culture that evolved over time.  The time frame ranged from about 70,000 YBP to about 23,000 YBP.  Appearance of the following haplogroups occurred during this time span: M89, F1329, F929, L15, M9, M526, M1221, P295, M45, M207, and M173.  The origin of Haplogroups M207 and M173 may have been in W. Asia.  M207 occurred about 32,000 YBP and M173 about 23,000 YBP. 

An interesting phenomenon accompanied the SNP R1- M173 mutation.  Skin tones changed from dark to light (possibly a form of albinism.)  The predominant hypothesis states that the light skin tones at least partially were the result of the A111A to A111T mutation of the SLC24A5 gene. (SNP rs 1426654) [36]   The SLC24A5 gene controls epidermal melanogenesis [41] and A111T (or lack of A111A) interferes with this process. [25]   Other hypotheses have credited a mutation on the ASIP, MC1R, and/or OCA2 gene.  To date at least eleven gene mutations have been listed as contributors to light skin tone. [70]   The degree to which each gene contributed to European skin tones isn’t settled as yet.  There were two descendant SNPs of R1-M173: R1a and R1b.  R1a is found more in the northern and eastern parts of Europe. Especially northern Europeans tend to have much lighter skin tones than other parts of Europe.  Perhaps a second mutation was involved here.  Historically, albinos have been ostracized (even today) and set apart.  Albinism generally is a recessive trait.  However, since albinos probably were set apart as a colony, subsequent marriages probably were between albinos, so children likely were albinos as well.

The place of origin of Haplogroup R1b (R-M343) is thought to have been Western Asia [11][12] probably Anatolia, Southern Caucasus, or Northern Mesopotamia. [11]   Haplogroup Rb1 and its brother (Haplogroup R1a [aka M420]) roamed the area between, north, and south of the Black and Caspian Seas (Caucasus, Pontic Steppe, and Anatolia (Turkey), respectively). [11][12]   Originally Haplogroup R1b was concentrated more south of Caucasus [11] while Haplogroup R1a was more concentrated in the Pontic Steppe.  Later many R1b people migrated to the Western Pontic Steppe and R1a became more concentrated in the eastern and northern parts of the Pontic Steppe. [11]   However, both R1a and R1b were found throughout the region. [[11]   Collectively R1a, R1b, and their neighboring tribes are credited with domestication of horses, cattle, sheep, and goats; development of a language that became the basis for the Indo-European group of languages; development of the wheel, wagons, and chariots; and development of bronze for use in tools and weapons. [11]   Haplogroups L278, L754, L338, P297, M269, and L23 arose during this period which ranged from about 23,000 YBP to about 6,200 YBP.  Haplogroup M269 may have had its origin in Anatolia but eventually migrated to the Pontic Steppe area north of the Black Sea. [11]   Haplogroup L23 probably arose in the Pontic Steppe.

Let me digress briefly to set the stage for the next set of migrations.  Farming had developed in the Middle East and had spread in all directions.  Farming was much more efficient in land usage and a more stable culture than the hunting and gathering lifestyle.  After the last ice age maximum, farmers from the Middle East helped to repopulate Europe.  It is thought that the migration was predominantly males (some probably were families) who then married local women after arriving in Europe. [55]   These migrations are thought to have occurred between 10,000 YBP and 6,200 YBP.

Environmental factors, increasing population, desire for lands for grazing, and Mongols arriving from the east led to migratory pressures on the Pontic Steppe, Caucasus, and Anatolia.  Haplogroup R1a and subclades primarily and R1b and subclades to a lesser extent raided Northern Europe from the steppe on multiple occasions.  Many in Haplogroup R1b and subclades returned from the Pontic Steppe to Anatolia where they probably picked up some farming experience but maintained their herding lifestyle.  Eventually Haplogroup R1b gradually overran Europe to the Atlantic shores and beyond.  Hammer [47] proposed a migration path through Anatolia as Haplogroup M269 and through centers of expansion for these new migrants into present day Bulgaria as Haplogroup P311; into present day Germany as Haplogroup P312 and Haplogroup U106.  Haplogroup U106 went to present day Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.  Haplogroup P312 went from Germany to present day Italy as Haplogroup U152; to the Iberian Peninsula as Haplogroup DF27, to the British Isles as Haplogroup L21; and to present day Iceland as M222.  Hammer’s hypothesis proposed that as one center became populated, some of the descendants moved elsewhere to find land to start new grazing areas for their livestock.  When that area filled up, some descendants would move on to newer open areas.  An article in Eupedia [11] differed in some aspects from Hammer and stated that the descendants of Haplogroup R1b migrated to SE Europe (as L51, L151, & P311) via a northern route; then to Central Europe (as P312); and then spread out to present day Italy (as U152), Scandinavia (as U106, L238, & DF19), England (as L21), Wales (as L21 & M222), France (as L21 & DF27), and Spain (as DF27).  Most of these haplogroups can be found throughout Europe, but they are concentrated in the areas described above.  The Haplogroup R1b migrations to Europe occurred from about 6200 YBP to 3200 YBP.  These paths are shown in Figure 1.  From 6200 YBP to 4500 YBP most of the Rb1 migration flowed into the Danube Basin.  From 4500 YBP to 3200 YBP migration reached the rest of Europe and the British Isles. [11]

The resident farmers in Europe probably were no match for the invading warriors from the east with their horses, wagons, chariots, and bronze weapons.  Many of the resident farming males probably were killed or fled and the women were raped and/or taken as wives by the invaders.  The invaders became the ruling class and formed fiefdoms led by a king and chieftains.  The culture of the invaders became the new culture of the fiefdoms.  These leaders practiced polygamy and had many children. [11]   Descendants of these warriors from Western Asia make up a large proportion of the present day residents of Western Europe.

Modern haplogroup density maps show the highest densities of Haplogroup R1b and its subclades along the Atlantic border of Europe and decreasing eastwardly.  That led some genetic genealogists to theorize that the migrants arrived in Europe via the Iberian Peninsula and expanded to the east. [54]   Others dispelled this by claiming that genetic diversity was higher in Eastern Europe and lower as you moved west. [62][73]   Genetic diversity should be higher closer to the origin because the migrating groups had less diversity to begin with. (founder effect)  Busby’s research [35] criticized the work of Myres [62] and Valverde [73] for methodoligcal reasons, so how Haplogroup R1b got to Western Europe still is up in the air.  However, it appears that the prevailing opinion is that R1b and subclades’ movement was through Southeast Europe and Germany rather than the Iberian Peninsula.

My paternal ancestors appeared to migrate from Germany to the Iberian Peninsula where the Haplogroup R-DF27 mutation occurred.  An R-DF27 map shows its highest concentration near to the Atlantic end of the Pyrenee Mountains that separates France and Spain. [68]   A Eupedia map [6] shows the highest concentration of R-DF27 along the Pyrenees and dropping off north (especially) and south.  Based on internal diversity, Sole-Morata, et al. [68] concluded that the origin of R-DF27 probably was in North East Iberia (Mediterranean end of the Pyrenees.)  I was not able to find more details of my next two mutations, R-ZZ12_1 and R-ZZ19_1.  It appears that I must await the results of my Big Y-500 to determine my more recent Y-haplogroups.

The Maternal Tree is shorter because mtDNA mutates much less often than yDNA [15] and there was considerably less time involved.  My maternal ancestor, “Eve,” originated in Africa around 200,000 YBP to 180,000 YBP.  Obviously, she had ancestors but they were not discussed in the literature that I reviewed.  Probably during the interglacial period, (late MIS 5 or early MIS 3, my maternal ancestors migrated out of Africa via the Sinai Peninsula as Haplogroup L3 or Haplogroup N. (More about this below)  It is thought that they ended up in Central Asia after passing through the Levant, Anatole and Caucasus.  Haplogroup R originated about 54,500 YBP around Uzbekistan and Haplogroup R0 originated about 40,000 YBP between the Caucasus Mountains and Pontic Steppe. [56}  It is thought that the next six mutational steps, HV – H6a1a, occurred in the area of Pontic Steppe, Caucasus, or Anatole.  Haplogroups H, H6, H6a1a, and others have been found in Anatolia, Caucasus, and the Pontic Steppe. [11]   Haplogroup H6 was not found in Europe before the Bronze Age, [10] but Haplogroup H and subclades were found in Yamna (24%) [28], Corded Ware (21%) [5], Catacomb (25%) [4], and Unetice (43%) [27] cultures that had expanded into Europe with the male Haplogroups R1a and R1b.    See Figure 2.

Another conflicting area is the “Out of Africa Theory” which states that there was one origin of humans in Africa and every living non-African human can trace their origin to that source.  Another camp argues for multiple origins that developed independently. [46]   I believe that the majority of scientists favor the former theory but they have had to adjust their theory to account for what appears to have been multiple small waves of archaic and modern humans out of Africa over large spans of time.  In a review paper, Huw S. Groucutt, et al. in 2015 [45]  presented a table that tabulated quality of fossil and archeological evidence for the existence of Homo sapiens in the Levant, Arabia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia from 140,000 YBP to 40,000 YBP at intervals of 10,000 years.  There was weak to strong evidence in the Levant in 11 of 12 categories including 140,000 YBP.  In Arabia there was weak to moderate evidence for artifacts from 100,000 YBP to 40,000 YBP, but no fossil evidence.  In South Asia there was weak to strong evidence of artifacts from 100,000 YBP to 40,000 YBP, but no fossil evidence.  In Southeast Asia there was weak to strong fossil evidence from 100,000 YBP to 40,000 YBP and moderate to strong artifact evidence from 50,000 YBP to 40,000 YBP.  Finally in Australia there was no evidence until 60,000 YBP; weak fossil evidence in 50,000 YBP, strong fossil evidence in 40,000 YBP; weak artifact evidence in 60,000 YBP and strong artifact evidence in 50,000 YBP and 40,000 YBP.  In another review paper, Lopez, et al., [58] cited archeological evidence from 140,000 YBP to 70,000 YBP and DNA evidence from 60,000 YBP to 40,000 YBP.  It is clear that the out of Africa migration spanned a long time and doesn’t support a single exodus.  Neither review attempted to determine whether the artifacts could have been from archaic humanoids.  Modern human teeth dated to 120,000 YBP – 80,000 YBP have been found in China. [40]   A fossilized modern human finger bone dated about 90,000 YBP was found in Arabia. [44]  Several modern human fossils dated 120,000 YBP to 80,000 YBP have been found in Israel. [24]   A jawbone dated 194,000 YBP to 177,000 YBP also was found in Israel. [50]   Generally, it is thought that these and other early excursions were small groups and had minor input into peopling of the world.  The main waves probably left Africa around 70,000 YBP to 50,000 YBP.  Stay tuned.  Research usually increases knowledge and sometimes leads to radically new information.

There are different opinions about the original Out-of-Africa migration route that led to population of the world.  Major camps argue for 1) a northern route via the Nile River (or the west shoreline of the Red Sea) and across the Sinai Peninsula to the Levant (present day Middle East) into Central Asia and eventually to other locations including Oceania or 2) a southern route via Bab-el-Mandeb Strait at the southern end of the Red Sea to the Arabian Peninsula through Arabia then India to Oceania.  The Sinai was a land bridge open all of the time but involved crossing the Sahara which usually was a desert.  The width of the Bab el Mandeb Strait usually is 12 miles. [3]   However, expanding glaciers reduce ocean level and create arid conditions in lower latitudes and melting glaciers do the opposite. [42][76]  The estimated sea level (which has varied as much as 400-500 feet below present) [32] never was low enough to create a land bridge completely across the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait based on current depths (average of 609 feet). [3]   Therefore some form of water transport would have been required regardless of the stage of glaciation.  There is much anecdotal evidence suggesting that early humans must have used boats of some sort. [66]   On the other hand, the Strait of Hormuz on the Persian Gulf currently has a maximum depth of 295 feet [22] so a land bridge likely would form during glacial periods.  There probably were times when the Persian Gulf was no more than a river that drained the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.  There were periods between 120,000 YBP and 70,000 YBP (interglacials) when parts of the Sahara probably were vegetated [32][33] and amenable to crossing.  Boivin, et al. [33] presented a hypothetical desert and vegetation map during MIS 5, an interglacial period from about 120,000 YBP and 80,000 YBP.  Desert areas were contracted slightly with vegetated strips around the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean.   During this time span, the ocean level was above average [32] so crossing the Bab el Mandeb Strait would have been more challenging than during a glacial period.  On the other hand, during a glacial period the Arabian Peninsula would have experienced extreme desert conditions.  With this backdrop, let’s look at some of the evidence.

First let me state that the prevailing opinion favors the southern route.  However, there has been spotty artifact evidence and no fossil evidence to support the southern route through the Arabian Peninsula. [33] 

On the other hand, a series of papers presented DNA and geographic evidence that supported the northern route.  It appears that all of the following papers were generated under the supervision (common author) of Vicente Cabrera at the University of La Laguna, La Laguna, Spain.  Khaled K. Abu-Amero in 2008 [1] reported that there were no ancient versions of mtDNA Haplogroups M and N in the Arabian Peninsula that would be expected with original migration via the southern route.  In 2015 Rosa Fregel, et al. [39] analyzed a large number of mtDNA basal lineages of Haplogroup N (N without R) or [N[xR]] (many other haplogroups as well), coalescence ages, and current locations.  The purpose was to remove the ubiquitous, overwhelming effects of the Haplogroup R.  The N(xR) oldest coalescent age was in Eurasia (probably Central Asia based on maps) and decreased in all directions from there including the Arabian and Indian Peninsulas, China, Oceania, Europe, and Siberia.  These data did not support the southern route.  The evidence overwhelmingly supported the northern route to Central Asia and subsequent migration to other locations.  Most lineages found in Oceania had archaic admixture in their DNA.  The northern route but not the southern route would be consistent with genetic admixture from archaic humans [39] who were not found in Africa or Southern Asia.  Larruga, Jose M., et al. in 2017 [56 ] found similar results for mtDNA Haplogroup R.  Marrero, P, et al. in 2016 [59] found that mtDNA Haplogroup M followed a similar pattern to Central Asia; then to Southeast Asia; and then spread out in all directions from there including India, Arabia, Africa, and Siberia.  Fregel, et al. [39] did not claim that the northern route was mutually exclusive but an alternative way out of Africa.    However, it appears clear that Haplogroups M and N and subclades which represent all or nearly all Out Of Africa females used the northern route out of Africa.  It seems logical that the men must have used the same route.  A criticism of these papers is that they tested current residents and assumed that they lived in the same general location as their ancient ancestors.  Most of this kind of research suffers on this question of representativeness.  The alternative is to find fossils to test.

The results of my most recent paternal haplogroup should be generalizable to other descendants of Rene le jeune Landry.  Since Rene l’aine Landry was a cousin of Rene le jeune Landry,[57] my paternal haplogroup designation should be generalizable to Rene l’aine Landry descendants as well.

 

                           Figure 1 My Proposed Male Migrations Based on yDNA Haplogroups

                                                http://www.landrygenealogy.com/showmedia.php?mediaID=181

                                                Click on return arrow to return to text.

                                   

                                                                             Figure 2 My Proposed Female Migrations Based on mtDNA Haplogroups                                  

                                                http://www.landrygenealogy.com/showmedia.php?mediaID=180

                                                Click on return arrow to return to text.

 

The migration maps probably are an over simplification of what actually happened.  It is thought that there were migrations back and forth.  My earlier ancestors were nomadic hunter-gatherers.  Farming was not a way of life until much later.  Therefore they followed the food sources as seasons changed.  Also when glaciers moved south, the food sources moved south as well.  The map suggests that clans moved as a group.  I am sure there were some adventurous groups who struck out on their own early and many, if not most, who stayed when others moved on.  Generally pinpointing origins depends on the assumption that diversity of a haplogroup is greatest at the point of origin and decreases with distance from the origin.

Let me briefly discuss events that may have influenced the concentration of specific SNPs.  Life was harsh and dangerous.  Evolutionary forces were at work.  Some examples of the challenges were new diseases, drought, glaciers, competition with other groups in a crowded area, large volcanic explosions, tsunamis, strikes by comets and/or asteroids, large scale flooding, etc.  If a particular mutation allowed a group to cope better with such disturbances, they were more likely to survive and pass their DNA profile to their descendants.  In the case of early modern humans who had a larger frontal area in the brain; the ability to think, use technology to their advantage, communicate, socially organize, and take reasonable risks would improve chances to cope with challenges better than their competitors, e.g. Neanderthals. [46]

Near extinctions (bottlenecks) are proposed when genetic diversity in a population is lower than expected. [17]   Based on evidence of low diversity in human DNA and extinctions, [43] some scientists have concluded that at least two (probably three) major events happened that dramatically reduced the human population: 1) around 70,000 YBP and 2) later during the last glacial maximum in Europe (before 20,000 YBP-12,000 YBP). 

Some scientists have attributed the former to the eruption of the Toba volcano on Sumatra.  The big eruption was preceded by three smaller eruptions during the previous 400 years. [71]   The big eruption was the largest eruption on earth in the last 2 million years. [64]   Current India was covered with 1-3 meters of volcanic ash and Greenland’s average temperature dropped 16o C. [76]   The eruption has been hypothesized as the trigger for the start of the last glacial period. [76]   Other evidence is not in agreement with this hypothesis.  For one, the eruption took place about 74,000 YBP, [60][64][71] which was in the middle of an ongoing glacial period (MIS-4) . [32][71]   An interim nadir occurred in about 66,000 YBP, followed by a warming trend until about 53,000 YBP, and then the last glacial maximum occurred about 12,000 YBP.  Computer simulations of the Toba eruption predicted that most trees were killed due to volcanic ash, but grasses survived.  It took about ten years after the eruption for trees to start a comeback. [60]   Based on ice core studies, the Greenland average temperature dropped about 10oC [69] and computer simulations predicted that the global temperature dropped 8oC-17oC. [60]   Petraglia [65] reported that there were stone tools (indicating human activity, but no human fossils) below and above the 2.55 m. layer containing Toba ash sediments in India; however, this study has been discredited and the original work retracted. [60]

Some scientists believe that there was no population bottleneck around 70,000 YBP.  The effect on vegetation as measured in sediment in East Africa’s Lake Malawi appeared to be minimal [79] and there was no effect on the coast of South Africa. [67]   The bottleneck date has been recalculated to about 50,000 YBP using modified assumptions.   Hawks [48] claimed that the bottleneck represents a series of founder effects as segments of the population migrated first out of Africa and then to other places.  Each time a part of a group migrated, their genetic diversity probably would be less than the remaining group.

In the second case above, during the last glacial maximum and later, there were major population changes.  Neanderthals and Denisovans became extinct throughout Eurasia, Haplogroup M vanished from Europe, and Haplogroup R1b (mostly as R-M269 and its subclades) became dominant in Western Europe. [47][61][72]   During the last glacial maximum, the ice and the permafrost extended to current Italy, Spain, and Greece. [2]   The permafrost region would not support a large population.  The humans and animals that had roamed Europe were confined mostly into three Mediteranian peninsular areas.  Many people must have perished.  There was a volcanic eruption near Naples, Italy.  Some of those on the Iberian Peninsula may have returned to Africa.  These factors would not explain extinction in Asia where humans could have moved farther south.  Perhaps lower adaptability in Neanderthals and interbreeding with Homo sapiens played a part.  An asteroid may have landed off the east coast of North America and created a very large tsunami.   Berekoven [31] presented a brief review of possible factors.  When the ice receded, new haplogroups gradually moved in from W. Asia and genetically overwhelmed the remaining, earlier residents. [47]    The new residents brought farming technology with them from Western Asia and the Near East which afforded them an advantage over previous residents. [47]   Eventually, the warriors of Central Asia moved in leading to the current genetic makeup of Europe.

The waxing and waning of glaciers occurred gradually over long periods of time and was a major factor in the lives of modern humans as a species.  The temperature changes have been explained as due to changes in solar radiation resulting from an interacting periodicity among the earth’s eccentric revolution about the sun, its changing axial tilt, and its precession (axis wobble.) [18]   Variables on earth that reduced solar radiation had an effect as well, e. g. volcanos.  Glaciers have impacted the earth in number of ways.  Ice reflects solar heat away from earth.  Glaciers trapped large amounts of water resulting in a large difference between high and low ocean levels as much as 150 meters (about 492 feet). [42][76]   In some areas lower water would have created land bridges between land masses, especially in the islands in Oceania off of the coast of Southeast Asia.  Water trapped in ice led to drought conditions south of the northern hemisphere glaciers.  And glaciers changed the topography through erosion and depositions.

Probably almost everybody has heard a statement similar to this: the DNA of Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis are 99+% the same.  If so, how can the two species be so different?  The answer is that for a gene to be active it must be turned on.  Various stimuli can turn a gene on/off via an activator/deactivator site on the DNA.  Scientists have determined that the profile of on and off genes differed considerably between Homo sapiens and Homo Neanderthalensis.   Even modern humans’ profiles differ.  Identical twins probably differ at this level also. [29]

In modern humans, about 2%-4% of the DNA has Neanderthal origins.[63]   This factor is taken to mean that the two species interbred.  However, no yDNA from Neanderthal men has been found in modern human DNA; it is all X-linked DNA.  That has led to the hypothesis that Neanderthal male offspring were not viable in this cross-species breeding.  Scientists identified four y-chromosome genes that differed in the two species and three of them resembled those in modern humans that lead to an immune reaction of the mother to a male fetus and thus a miscarriage. [38]   This issue may have contributed to the extinction of Neanderthals.  Modern humans also interbred with Homo denisovan in Siberia, Southeast Asia and Oceania. [34]

Wikipedia suggests that the Landry surname is French but has origins in Germany.  This derivation would be consistent with the proposed migration path through German settlements to France.

My paternal lineage, Landry, apparently settled in France, probably southwest of Paris.  Farming probably was the primary form of sustenance, but only aristocracy owned land.  Conditions probably were harsh for peasants.  The opportunity to start over in the new world probably was appealing to my paternal ancestors in the 1600s A. D.

My maternal (mother-mother) lineage has been difficult to follow.  Of course, the surname changed every generation and most genealogies don’t follow females very far back.  What I tentatively have determined so far includes: Morrison, Vanderryt, Hawbaker, Whitmer, Shank, Rush, Skinner, Higgins, and Yates in that order back to about 1626 A. D.  All were residents of what currently is the USA, so where their ancestors lived is unknown.  Wikipedia listed Yates as common in Ireland, but Yates’ mother may have born somewhere else. 

References

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30.  Behar, Doron M., et al., “A ‘Copernican’ Reassessment of the Human Mitochondrial DNA Tree from its Root,” American Journal of Human Genetics, 90:675-684, 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3322232/

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